Aguwa, Jude. 2010. “Religion and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Nigeria.” Cross Currents 60, no.2. 208-223. Histoirical Abstracts with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed May 8, 2018).
Doskoch, P. “In Nigeria, Migrant Youth Are More Likely Than Others to Have Had Sex.” International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 37, no. 3 (2011): 161-62. http://www.jstor.org.muhlenberg.idm.oclc.org/stable/41309598.
Fayemi, Mojisola M., Olufemi L. Oduola, Queen Ogbuji, Kehinde A. Osinowo, Adejoke E. Oyewo, and Olabimpe M. Osiberu. “The Knowledge of Emergency Contraception and Dispensing Practices of Patent Medicine Vendors in South West Nigeria.” Journal of Public Health Policy 31, no. 3 (2010): 281-94. http://www.jstor.org.muhlenberg.idm.oclc.org/stable/40802339.
There is a close tie between sports and gender relationships in Nigeria. Similarly, to many of the cultural values that Nigeria possesses, they adopted football/soccer through Christian missionaries from the coastal cities of Calabar and Lagos(2207). The students in mission schools were some of the first Nigerians to play the sport of soccer, but since many females did not attend mission schools it took longer for them to adopt soccer into their everyday life(2207). Soccer was considered to be a male sport in Nigeria for a long period of time. Later on in Nigeria’s history, the women’s national soccer team was created which ended up becoming the most popular and successful women’s team on the continent(2207). The reason why this sport connects with gender relations is simply due to the fact that women rarely compete with males on the soccer field simply because of public perception during this time period. Women mainly play on teams that are part of schools and do not have any tie to males whatsoever even if it is just a pickup soccer game(2208). This is not very surprising to me because we learned a sufficient amount about gender relations within Africa in class and women seem to have many different roles to fulfill than men do. I do find it surprising that women would not even dare to be caught playing soccer on the same field at the same time as men during this time period. This is completely different than my personal experiences with soccer within the United States. I have played the sport my entire life and have played in the same pickup games as females. Even during high school, we would have inter squad scrimmages for fun with the girls soccer team.
My primary article actually shocks me. It discusses how a Nigerian man could’ve won an Olympic medal if he wasn’t from Nigeria. According to the Newspaper article if the man was from Rwanda he would’ve been able to jump his own height by maturity. This whole newspaper article seems very out of the ordinary to me. It doesn’t make sense that he would’ve been able to jump a certain height if he lived in a different country in Africa. This sounds very out of the ordinary to me and doesn’t make much sense but it seems as if Nigeria wasn’t really the heart of athletics within Africa. Other countries seem to have been more culturally progressed in terms of athletics during this particular time period.
As a whole gender relations connect to athletics during this time period because women simply would not dare to be caught on the same playing field as men. This all has to do with Nigerian culture and gender relations in Nigeria during this time period. I am not sure if this has changed in recent time but during the time period from 1945-1985 it seems as if this was the norm. Women were treated much differently in Nigeria during this particular time that is being discussed.
African Jumpers Could have Won Olympic Crown (July 16, 1949) p.15, col.4Sportshttp://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&res_dat=xri:bsc:&rft_dat=xri:bsc:rec:newspaper:HNP_68419_19490716_0253
Onwumechili, C. (2011). Urbanization and female football in Nigeria: history and struggle in a ‘man’s game’. International Journal Of The History Of Sport, 28(15), 2206-2219. doi:10.1080/09523367.2011.622117
Athletics were a major aspect of society within Nigeria from 1945-1985. One of the most important sports within Nigeria’s history was soccer. Many Nigerians followed their local soccer clubs at first but as years went on they eventually they began to follow European soccer much more closely than the soccer that was played around them in Nigeria. This was due to the fact that Nigerians do not consider the soccer that is played locally as “ideal”. This term simply means that the rules, funding, quality of games, and officiating were not considered to be the same level of quality as European soccer(630). These Nigerian fans believe that the officiating within their local soccer leagues is often biased and the sport is not funded well within their areas so they do not consider their personal region of Nigeria to have “ideal” soccer (630). Although these fans are not watching their local teams they actually get to watch many of Nigeria’s soccer stars play on European teams(631). These players go over to Europe because they are skilled enough to play with the soccer stars in Europe and at the same time they are being awarded more money for playing in Europe. Since the teams in Europe are well funded, they have more money to award each player for playing for their team. Nigerian soccer fans do not believe that their local soccer players would be able to compete with the competition that the Nigerian players compete amongst in Europe which also adds to their belief that soccer within Nigeria is not “ideal”(631).
I feel as if many regions of Africa adopt many different cultures from other parts of the world. As we can see here the Nigerians actually find more enjoyment and entertainment in watching the European soccer teams compete. In class, we learned about how the Nigerians adopted a style of dress from other areas of the world so I do not find it surprising that the Nigerian soccer fans find European soccer more “ideal”. I have a pretty significant background with soccer because one side of my family is European. My family enjoys watching European soccer because of its competitiveness and all the stars that we get to watch from the particular country of Portugal (where most of my mom’s side of the family is from). Although Portugal is located within Europe, these players choose to play within Europe simply because it is known as the most competitive soccer league and at the same time they can make the most money playing in Europe. Just like Nigeria, soccer seems to be the most prominent sport in many other countries located around the world. It is probably one of the least followed sports within the United States but I still follow it very closely due to my family’s background. Nigerian soccer as a whole may not have been very competitive during this particular time period but it is definitely a major part of Nigerian culture. Nigeria has one of the more competitive national teams within Africa along with Ghana and they have made appearances in the FIFA world cup many times over the years.
Omobowale, Ayokunle Olumuyiwa. 2009. “Sports and European Soccer Fans in Nigeria.” Journal Of Asian & African Studies (Sage Publications, Ltd.) 44, no. 6: 624-634. Historical Abstracts with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed April 17, 2018).
As presented in my last post Nigerian music really played a major role in society during the era before 1945. Not only did it have many religious based values, but it also played many other roles within society during this musical era within Nigeria. Most of the music introduced to Nigerian individuals had religious roots so that was the major point of interest within society, but many individuals also composed music based off of their own personal values as presented in my previous post. I would now like to delve deeper into the role music and religion played within the society of Nigeria pre-1945. This post will discuss religion more primarily than music itself during the pre-1945 era.
The primary source that I will be discussing involves the marriage of a Nigerian man to a royal individual of England. It was out of the ordinary for this to ever happen during this time period but as presented in th3e article it actually went through and was approved to happen. Both of their families approved of the marriage (“Plan July Wedding”,1953). Not only does this discuss an unusual event that occurred within the religion of Nigeria but it also links to music because many ceremonies within Nigeria included a lot of the music that had been introduced to the Nigerians pre-1945. It would have been unusual for some sort of Nigerian music to not be played or performed at a Nigerian wedding. Although the marriage was taking place at a church in England, members of the Nigerian man’s family would be attending the marriage so it is inferred that some sort of Nigerian root music would have been heard at the wedding (“Plan July Wedding”,1953). Both individuals were asked if they expected any problems to come because of their mixed marriage. The Nigerian man responded by saying that he fortunately wouldn’t have to worry about this type of issue occurring within his country because there is no discrimination because of color or religion within his country (“Plan July Wedding”,1953). Therefore, not only did was this marriage quite unusual between these two ethnicities but music also links to this topic primarily because Nigerian music was utilized at many or most Nigerian celebrations or ceremonies.
As a whole music seems to have been a prominent factor within society as presented in the previous research that I have done. Although this post focuses mainly on the religious values that were held within Nigeria, it is clear that music was connected to many religious events and practices that were spread throughout Nigeria. It was definitely unusual for a Nigerian man to get married to and English woman of high social status let alone an English woman at all, but as state in my primary source, it seemed to create no issues at all from the male’s point of view. The female did not speak of this topic but it can be inferred that she had no issues related to this topic considering many of her family members planned to attend the wedding ceremony (“Plan July Wedding”,1953).
Cripps’ Daughter To Wed Nigerian, Plan July Wedding; Chicago Defender (Jun 06, 1953) p.1, col.5; front page; Jun 06, 1953;
Throughout the years before 1945 music was introduced to many Nigerian individuals. Nigerian composers were actually introduced to European classical music through the churches and schools that they attended (Sadoh 79). These schools were predominantly Christian and the assimilation to Christianity for many Nigerians drove them to learn these new types of music around the time of the 1840s (Sadoh 79). Western education arose in Nigeria around the year of 1842 according to Robert Kwami (Sadoh 79). During this period of the addition of Western education, the school curriculum encapsulated many forms of singing and music (Sahoh 79). If a Nigerian composer or individual wanted to delve deeper into the musical field, they would have to attend schools that taught specifically about the new music that was being introduced to Nigeria (Sadoh 80). Although music was originally introduced to Nigerians by the European colonists, music has grown to a much greater level even currently within Nigerian society. I find it interesting how important music was within Nigeria before 1945. It almost seems as if music was of higher importance within the education of Nigeria.
Most of the music that had been created by Nigerian individuals related to the beliefs of the composers who were composing the particular music (Edet 111). This new music was often performed at calendar festivals and religious rituals (Edet 111). Music seems to have had a strong connection to religion within Nigeria. Music was played at almost every religious celebration and in church services (Edet 111). I have even delved deep enough into my research to uncover information on early Nigerian music. Most indigenous music within Nigeria connects to beliefs from the past (Edet 111). Each group of early Nigerian individuals placed a different value on music from one another (Edet 111). Some groups placed higher value on music within society than other groups did (Edet 111).
Nigeria seems to have placed great value on music within every day society before the year of 1945. Although a new type of music was introduced to the Nigerians during the time the Europeans attempted to assimilate the Nigerians, many Nigerian musical cultures were also developed solely through the beliefs that the Nigerian peoples possessed. When the Europeans were sharing their Christian religious beliefs with the Nigerians, they also introduced a style of music that would be performed or utilized during these religious practices. Along with the assimilation of the Nigerians, schools were also introduced and music played a large role in Nigerian education as I have uncovered. I personally see music as an important aspect of pop culture within any society. Music has shaped me personally and from my research it seems as if it shaped Nigerian society pre-1945. I would love to listen to the style of music that was introduced into society when the European colonists arrived in Nigeria as well as the music that the Nigerians created. It’s unfortunate that music isn’t an important part of education within our society today because I feel it serves as a stress reliever and almost enables individuals to delve deeper within their thoughts and education. Music was a great advancement in the popular culture of Nigeria before the year of 1945. If this style of music was forced into Nigerian society, I believe that there would be some sort of conflict within Nigerian society. The assimilation didn’t force this music upon the Nigerian inhabitants but it introduced it to them in a way that would potentially catch their interest. They were not told they had to practice this particular religion and listen to this particular music. It was something that caught the interest of the Nigerians, when the Europeans began to spread their values throughout Nigeria.
Edet, E. M. “Music in Nigeria.” African Music 3, no. 3 (1964): 111-13. http://www.jstor.org.muhlenberg.idm.oclc.org/stable/30249578
Sadoh, Godwin. “Modern Nigerian Music: The Postcolonial Experience.” The Musical Times 150, no. 1908 (2009): 79-84